Tag Archives: python
A lesson on failure: “Going Cloud”

More than a year ago, during a time when I barely knew anything about Cloud Computing or AWS, I was assigned along with a couple of colleagues on bringing an existing code base from “alpha” to “production” and ensure a smooth deployment to the Amazon Cloud. The customer wanted to “go live” in less than 3 months and be able to handle tens of thousands of visitors that would click on banners and fill their bank accounts; well, most likely they were just wishing for a good exit. On a side note, one of the photoplasty sections of the cracked.com website has an image about this type of business.

Starting the project

Things initially went to some direction – we dealt with many functionality issues, being able to fix and test more than 100 bugs and glitches; after all, this was the thing we knew best how to do and we also put in the long hours required for getting things done. We weren’t bothered by the cloud setup issues – the customer fiercely guarded the “keys to the kingdom” and agreed on instance and resource set-ups on a case-by-case basis only, all with the desire of keeping the Amazon bill as low as possible. We thought this was fine – it was their home, they knew best what they needed.

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Python: Crazy Interview Questions

1. The default initializer gotcha

Suppose you are in an interview setting and you are being handed a piece of paper with the following Python code written on it:

def foo(bar=[])

No explanations, no nothing, just the obvious question: what is wrong with the code above?

… nothing in particular. Yes, nothing is wrong with the code above, it is legal Python code (apart from missing the ending “:” and that no function body is given). Who am I to judge the particular use case – after all, a bug is defined as code that does not run the way the programmer expected it to.

But suppose we add more code to that function definition:

def foo(bar=[]):
  return bar

Now things are getting messier. What would a “normal” Python programmer expect to be the result of calling foo() with no arguments for 3 times in a row?

foo()	# [1]
foo()	# [1]
foo()	# [1]

Nope. The real result is more similar to:

foo()	# [1]
foo()	# [1, 1]
foo()	# [1, 1, 1]

How is this even possible? The issue is with how default initializers for function arguments are handled in Python and this is completely different from C/C++. The scope of the default initializer is not the function body but rather the global scope (something similar to the static variables in C/C++). And static variables are good for caching and keeping state. But yes, I believe we had enough of this.

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Python Cheat Sheet: Lambdas

Did you think that list comprehensions were a complicated thing? I suspect you’ll think again about complicated things in Python while reading this text.


By definition, lambdas are short functions defined in place, used for small data processing tasks. There are 2 reasons on why they should be used:

  • Execution speed – they can be optimized by compilers, first by removing an actual function call, next by opening the door for more optimizations through any possible internal (by the compiler) code re-arrangement;

  • Writing less code.

A Python example of a n square lambda:

g = lambda x: x ** 2	# e.g. g(3) yields a value of 9

Lambdas are usually used in conjunction with data processing functions such as filter, map and reduce.


If we want to select only a portion of some input, the filter function comes to its best use in combination with a lambda:

print filter(lambda x: x % 2 == 0, xrange(0, 11))
[0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10]

Applying a transformation function to the entire input is a job for map:

print map(lambda x: x * 2, xrange(0, 11))
[0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20]

Processing the entire input in order to get a single final result is a job for reduce. Please note that 2 arguments are required for the lambda function used for processing; the first 2 elements are used in the beginning, then the lambda result and the next element are used until the input is exhausted.

print reduce(lambda x, y: x + y, xrange(0, 11))
55	# 1 + 2 + ... + 10

Now for some serious stuff:

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